Silver makers' marks

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Before the 14th century there was in Britain no legal requirement for a goldsmith to mark his work in any way, and he worked on the understanding that his goods should be of the same standard of purity as the coinage, that is, sterling, or 925 parts per thousand. With an interval in 1697-1720, when a higher standard was enforced to prevent the smelting of the coinage, this has remained law, and the Jersey Code des Lois of 1771 makes the same provision.


Eyes put out

That goldsmiths have by no means always adhered to it is apparent from an examination of their goods, and as early as the reign of Canute, 1016-1035, we are told of goldsmiths who had their eyes put out for adulterating the metal from which they had made the shrine of St Edith at Wilton.

Little silver survives from this early period, and examination of it shows that it was either unmarked, or, if an important piece, signed by the goldsmith in full. In South-west Britain the only surviving signed piece of this period is a silver seal-matrix of 1208 at Exeter made by one Luke the Goldsmith, signing Lucas me fecit, (Luke made me).

This type of signature began in the Saxon period, and another example from the same area is a late Saxon bronze sword-guard signed Leofric me fecit. Had the church or the nobility of the Channel Islands at this time commissioned important pieces, this is the type of mark that they might have borne.

An English statute of 1376 provided that every goldsmith should put his mark upon his work, and this provision remains law, having been incorporated in subsequent legislation. This was effectively a consumer protection act, enabling the maker of a deficient piece to be traced, and had become necessary because increasing prosperity had increased the silver-owning classes, and correspondingly the number of goldsmiths. Rightly or wrongly, this and subsequent legislation has always been held to mean, not that every piece should be marked, but that every piece exposed for sale should be marked.

If a customer ordered a piece to be made by his goldsmith, there was assumed to be no reason to mark it, for the customer, knowing who had made the piece, would have recourse to him were it deficient, and there would be no need to protect a wider public. From this interpretation of the law arises the very large quantity of unmarked antique silver, often important church and civic plate, or domestic plate bearing the arms or crests of powerful families.


Unmarked items

Large amounts of Channel Islands silver are unmarked, and indeed the various English acts relating to such marks were enforced by the London Goldsmiths' Company, which had no jurisdiction in the Channel Islands.

This interpretation of the law was doubtless used to its fullest extent in England in 1720-1758, when a duty was imposed on silverwares, and again after 1784, when the goods were stamped with a mark of the sovereign's head, showing the duty to have been paid. Were the goods unmarked, then evasion of the duty and by whom could not be determined. Though this duty did not extend to the Channel Islands, its effects are observable on Channel Islands silver, for the Jersey goldsmith LC, whose name has not been determined, forged the duty mark of the type introduced in 1786.

The Guernsey goldsmith Jean du Port, who for some reason had christening cups sent to London for hallmarking at this time, had his goods stamped with a duty drawback mark, showing a standing figure of Britannia, as evidence that the goods were intended for export and that the duty was therefore waived. This mark was only used in 1784-1785.

Related to the interpretation of the law outlined, was a further development of it, whereby the mark on a piece of silver was not so much that of the maker, as of the retailer. The modern assay office does not refer to a maker's mark, but to a sponsor's mark, and a large number of the maker's marks struck are in reality the marks of the retailers for whom the goldsmith made the goods, rather than those of the maker himself.

There being no legal standard of metal in the Channel Islands other than that enacted in Jersey in 1771, the retailer had to take personal responsibility for what he was selling, and this is perhaps the reason behind the practice of Channel Island goldsmiths, particularly in Jersey, of overstriking the marks of the original makers of the goods with their own. The same practice was in use at Plymouth, and at Exeter where much silver by Thomas Clarke is overstruck by Elstons and Anthony Tripe but elsewhere the normal procedure was for the retailer to strike an additional mark rather than to obliterate that of the maker.

This also occurs at Bristol, Exeter and Plymouth, perhaps the most marked piece being a castor of the early 18th century, marked by Mary Ashe and Jacob Tyeth of Launceston, and by Pentecost Symonds of Plymouth. Some London silver is found with the maker's mark overstruck as in Jersey, but this seems to have been done when one goldsmith bought out another, or when the goods of a bankrupt goldsmith passed into the hands of another.



The maker's mark on existing Channel Islands silver and gold, where it occurs, consists of two or three initials, representing the initial letters of his name, as in CWQ, for Charles William Quesnel; occasionally that of an article, as in JLG, for John le Gallais; and ccasionally that of the last name broken up to provide an extra initial, as in FKB, for Francis Kerby (Kirby).

This practice seems to derive from the tendency of many Channel Islanders to use three initials, because their last names carried le, la, de, de la, or du, the earliest instance of a middle initial being fabricated being NBD, for Nicholas Blondell, who opened his shop in St Peter Port in 1719. The use of initial marks became obligatory in Jersey in 1771, when the Code des Lois was published. However, unmarked pieces exist which appear to be later than this.

A perusal of the array of marks encountered on Channel Island silver shows two distinctive styles, French and English. Marks in the French style may have been in use before the 17th century, but nothing which bears them has survived, and existing silver shows them to have been introduced by Huguenot goldsmiths towards the end of that century. Huguenot goldsmiths also went to England, and often used marks in the French style there. This is not to suggest that goldsmiths of Huguenot origin invariably used marks in the French style, or that marks in the French style were not occasionally used by men not of Huguenot origin. Indeed, the well-attested hostility towards Huguenot craftsmen mayhave caused some to adopt marks in the English style.

The use of initials for the maker's mark became general practice in England during the 16th century, with the higher level of literacy attendant upon the Tudor industrial revolution, and by the end of the 17th century had replaced marks which showed devices, perhaps indicating the retailer's shop-sign.

The earliest marked Channel Islands silver is of the 17th century, but earlier pieces, if marked at all, may have borne such devices. These were sometimes, where the goldsmith's name made it possible, a rebus, thus for example George Barfote of Ilminster, Somerset, used on a communion cup in 1571 the mark of a bare foot. The additional marks consisting of crowns, fleurs- de-lys and other devices, which appear on Channel Island silver and some silver in south-west England, doubtless originate from these earlier marks.


A further mark which appears on most European silver is the hall-mark, that of the guildhall where the goods were assayed. In England this derives from the statute of 1363, when goods were required to be struck with the mark of the town where they were made and assayed, the responsibility for this falling upon the mayors or governors of the towns, with the assistance of the masters of the local mints.

Surviving silver from south-west England shows such marks from the 16th century onwards. During the upheavals of the 17th century, the goldsmiths of a number of towns struck such marks unofficially, there being no local goldsmiths' guilds or assay offices capable of applying such marks in the manner intended, and the powers of the London Goldsmiths' Company to inspect the wares of country goldsmiths being impeded by the Civil War. Though the acts had no bearing on the Channel Islands goldsmiths, a number of Jersey goldsmiths and retailers used a J mark for Jersey from the end of the 18th century until the beginning of the 20th.

In England the practice of using a letter of the alphabet to show in which year a piece was assayed, appears to have started in London 1478. This was also the case in some other northern European countries. By the third decade of the 16th century this system was adopted unofficially by some Exeter goldsmiths, to become regular when the Exeter Assay Office was established in 1701/2.

Traces of it may be observable on Channel Islands silver, since odd letters, perhaps interpretable as dummy date letters, appear on goods made by George Hamon, H, Charles William Quesnel, O, and the unidentified goldsmith PN, N or Z. Some of these letters correspond with an initial of the men who struck them alongside their normal maker's marks, and it is conceivable that they struck the letter marks using damaged or cut-down punches which originally had shown both their initials.

However, William Quesnel's O mark raises another possibility, for there also exist small additional marks on some Exeter cutlery of this period. It may be that these are not dummy date-letters, but tally marks intended to show from which working silversmith the retailer, and marker, obtained this particular piece of stock. Tally marks of this sort have been catalogued on Anglo-Indian silver of this period.

Standard mark

The silver and gold of most countries also bears a standard mark, indicating the purity of the metal used. No such marks appear on goods made in the Channel Islands.

It should not be assumed that maker’s mark only silver must be of Channel Island origin or that the lack of other marks implies that a piece was exported to the Islands. Much West Country silver bears only a maker’s mark, as for example work by Samson Benett of Falmouth.

Finally it should be recognised that the attribution of marks to particular men is very often speculative, and a rhyme given by Commander How in the introduction to a Sotheby's catalogue of provincial silver spoons offered for sale in 1935 should be graven on the heart of every student of the subject :

Said Robert Rew to Richard Rugg
"RR's my mark"; but with a shrug
Said Richard Rugg to Robert Rew
"I'm RR just as much as you";
So neither yielded; both held out,
And left the question still in doubt.


  • AE - Albert and possibly Alfred Edgar, Jersey, 1874-1905. Gold wedding rings, one with saw-cut decoration. His mark has been found overstruck on a tablespoon by Jacques Quesnel. The Edgars were the last to use the J placemark, using with it a crown apparently copied from that on English goldwares, or that of the Sheffield hallmark. The crown had previously been commonly used by a number of Channel Islands goldsmiths, most recently by John le Gallais, and this may have prompted its use.
  • AH - Araham Hébert, Jersey, c.1684-1700. Wine cups at Grouville dated 1684. another wine cup. trefid spoons.
  • AS - Unknown, probably Jersey, c.1710. Trefid spoon.
  • BR - Bruce Russell, of Bruce Russell and Son 1974- . Uses a date letter series commencing with A in 1974 Holds punch marks for Guernsey and Jersey, each copies of their respective Royal seals together with marks for Sark and Alderney. Punch bowls, presentation anchor for HMS Alderney, ceremonial Mace for Bock University, milk cans, cow creamers, cream jugs, christening cups,candlesticks, flatware, goblets and chalices
  • CF - Unknown, Jersey. c 1720. Christening cup.
  • CQ - Charles William Quesnel, Jersey, c.1790-1856. See under CWQ.
  • CR - Unknown, Jersey, late 17th C? Christening cup. A crowned E mark used by this man appears to be a copy of a French mark. This could conceivably be a mark of Christopher Rowland of Southampton though its Huguenot style could militate against this.
  • CTM - Charles T Maine, Jersey, 1890-present. Militia spoon presumably by Jacques Quesnel, with his mark overstruck. This mark is found overstruck on London-made goods. Bright-cut dessert spoon dated 1916. bright-cut forks. Bright-cut teaspoons, militia spoons.
  • CWQ - Charles William Quesnel, Jersey, 1790-1856. Gold wedding rings, sugar tongs, erving spoons tablespoons dessert forks, fiddle-pattern teaspoons, salt spoons. An O mark used by this man may be a dummy date letter.
  • ED - Unknown, Jersey, c.1750. Pear-shaped cream jug, beaker, 2 trefid spoons, 2 tablespoons, 6 teaspoons. Edward Davis of Newberyport, Massachusetts, used a similar mark c1775.
  • EG - Edouard Gavey, Jersey, c 1775. Coffee pot.
  • FKB - Francis Kerby (Kirby), Jersey, c 1832-1853. Dessert spoons. Teaspoons.
  • FP - Unknown, Jersey, late 18th C? Christening cup.
  • GB - Unknown, perhaps Jersey, c 1760. Tablespoon.
  • GD - Unknown, Guernsey, c 1710. Trefid spoon. George Christopher Dowig of Baltimore used a similar mark circa 1765.
  • GH - George Hamon I and II, Jersey, c.1775-1835. Beakers, punch ladle, marrow scoop, bright-cut sugar tongs, fiddle-pattern forks, trefid spoons, tablespoons, teaspoons, buckles, combined bodkin and earpick. The combined bodkin and earpick of this type was usually part of a set of instruments carried in an étui fitted for the purpose, usually of silver-mounted shagreen. Other instruments, wholly or partly of silver, would have included a knife and fork with detachable silver handles, a pencil, a folding rule, and a pair of scissors with folding silver handles. The existence of this piece suggests that the Hamons may have made up these sets. The earpick was combined with the bodkin because earwax was used to stiffen the end of the thread to make it easier to pass it through the eye of a needle. The Hamons frequently used a J placemark, sometimes struck more than once. The letter H which is also sometimes struck may be a copy of an English date-letter. Similar maker's marks, both crowned and uncrowned, were used by George Hanners of Boston, c 1720.
  • GH - Guillaume Henry, Guernsey, 1720-1767. Six pairs of candlesticks, three-footed tray dated 1757, waiters, platters at Câtel and St Sampson dated 1735 and 1757, salvers, bullet teapots, bullet hot milk jug c 1740 similar to a jug made by Paul de Lamerie in 1723, baluster mugs, dated 1735, 1745 and 1757, wine cup on Sark dated 1765, christening cups, dated 1753 and 1771, miniature Jersey christening cup brandy saucepan beakers, dated 1760 and 1761, three three-footed cream jugs, baluster cream jug, covered sugar bowl, pap boats, kitchen pepper with strap handle, three-footed salts, snuff-box dated 1760, snuffers tray dated 1756, wavy-end spoons, dog-nosed rattail spoons, strainer spoons, cowrie spoon, Hanoverian spoon, Old English pattern spoons, sugar nips, sugar tongs. Henry's mark is often accompanied by other marks such as a shell, a coronet, a heart and a letter R. The R used additionally by Henry cannot be intended as a date letter, as it appears alone on a footed salver at Câtel, Guernsey.
  • GM - George Mauger, Jersey, 1776-1823. Two baluster mugs, christening cup, nine beakers, cream jug, trefid spoons, tablespoons, shell-back teaspoon dated 1750. Teaspoons.
  • GS - Unknown, Jersey, c 1690-1722. Six wine cups, 10 christening cups, 2 miniature christening cups, nutmeg grater, gilt trefid spoon, trefid spoons, three-pronged trefid forks, dog-nosed rat-tail spoons.
  • HE? - Henry Ezekiel, Guernsey, c 1805-1830. Nothing reported.
  • HM - Unknown, supposedly Jersey, c.1700, shield-top spoon. This is almost certainly a mark of Henry Muston II of Plymouth, 1665-1725. He is known to have made rings and spoons, and entered his mark at the Exeter Assay Office. After 1701 his goods should have borne the Exeter hall-mark, other than if he supplied them to Channel Island customers.
  • HM - Unknown, Guernsey, c 1790. Christening cup. Teaspoons.
  • HS - Unknown, Guernsey, c 1760. Christening cup. This mark may equally well be read as SH.
  • IA - Unknown, Jersey, c 1685-1744. Large Guernsey christening cup, 1734. 5 Jersey christening cups, 1 dated 1685, beaker, trefid spoons, 1 dated 1744, tablespoons, teaspoons. This is conceivably the mark of Isaac d'Argent. Jean Amiot of Quebec, 1767-1792, used a somewhat similar mark. A tostevin of traditional form is known by him,which in a Channel Islands context would be thought of local manufacture. There would also be scope for confusion between this IA mark and that ascribed to Joseph Arden of Sherborne, c 1633.
  • IA - Unknown, Guernsey, c 1760-1810. Baluster mug dated 1768, three-footed cream jug, 13 christening cups, two dated 1763 and 1766, snuffers tray, punch ladle, tablespoon, teaspoons.
  • IB? - Jean le Bayllyf, Jersey, 1638-1674. Wine cups given to St Saviour in 1638. (Lost)
  • ID - Jean-Pierre du Port, Guernsey, 1779-1788. Christening cup by IH with his mark overstruck. 20 christening cups with London hallmarks overstruck, some being dated 1782, 1785 and 1788. These appear to have been made locally, and sent to London for hallmarking. In 1784-1785 an additional mark was in use at the London Assay Office, which was struck on silver destined for export, so that it would not be liable to the duty payable on silverware made for the English market. This duty-drawback mark has in several instances been found struck on wares later overstruck by du Port. These cups would have been submitted for assay by a member of the London Goldsmiths' Company, acting as sponsor for the original Guernsey maker, who may have been du Port. However, du Port has successfully obliterated this man's marks, and his identity remains to be determined.
  • IDG - John de Gruchy III, Oxford, 1773. These initials appear to show this man’s mark in the Parliamentary Return of 1773. Whether he had previously worked in Jersey or returned there is unknown.
  • IG? - Jean Girard, Jersey, 1605-1651. Nothing known.
  • IG - Jean Gavey, Jersey, c.1715-1775. Ecclesiastical flagons at St Helier dated 1766, alms dish at St Helier dated 1731, wavy-edge platter at St Helier dated 1740, wine cup at St Martin dated 1747, baptismal dishes at St Lawrence and St Aubin dated 1748 and 1750, coffee pots, alms dishes, salvers, collecting jugs, two-handled cup, christening cups, beakers, one dated 1775, bowls, sugar caster, three-pronged dognose forks, trefid spoons, Hanoverian spoons, teaspoons, sword hilt.
  • IH - Unknown, Guernsey, c1725-1785. Baptismal jugs at St Andrew and Câtel dated 1729, brandy saucepan, footed paten at St Pierre-du-Bois dated 1727, paten at Torteval dated 1727, salver, baluster mugs, some dated 1741-1758, over 40 christening cups, some dated, 1732-1781 1 Jersey christening cup, 3 wine cups, 6 beakers, one dated 1742, tostevin, pepperpot, sugar nips, 2 rat-tail spoons, 2 rat-tail teaspoons, buckles. The variety of punches used by this maker and the range of dated goods may suggest a business of more than one generation.
  • IL – Jacques Limbour, Jersey, c.1770-1791. Mug, baluster mugs, 2 christening cups, 3 beakers, 3-footed cream jug, trefid forks, trefid spoons, tablespoons, shell-back teaspoons. His mark is also found overstruck on those of the makers of two trefid spoons, apparently English, which must have been of considerable age. Similar uncrowned marks were used by Jacob Gerritse Lansing III, 1736-1803, of Albany, New York, by Jeffery Lang, 1733, of Salem, by John Leacock, 1748, of Philadelphia, by John Lynch, 1786, of Baltimore, and by Jan Lotter, 1813-1817, of Capetown.
  • ILP and IP - Jean le Page I and II, Guernsey, 1799-1836. Christening cups dated 1799, 1803 and 1814, tablespoons, bright-cut teaspoons, buckles, a two-handled cup dated 1803 with the maker's mark IH overstruck. 5 christening cups with London marks overstruck.
  • IP - Unknown, Jersey, early 18th century. Christening cup, trefid spoon.
  • IP - James Perchard, Guernsey, 1727-1758. Footed paten at Forêt, baluster mug.
  • IQ - Jacques Quesnel I, II and III, Jersey, 1780-1843. See under JQ.
  • IS - Unknown, Guernsey, c.1710-1720. 3 wine cups, 1 at St Sampson dated 1714, 3 christening cups, 1 Jersey chistening cup, oval spoon-tray, trefid spoons, 4 wavy-end spoons, rat-tailed Hanoverian spoons. This is conceivably the mark of Jean Saint.
  • JC - Unknown, Jersey, c.1780-1790. Adam-style teapot and stand with the de Vaumorel crest and motto. This is conceivably the mark of Mr Chevalier
  • JK - John Kerby, Jersey, c.1800-1832. Teaspoons.
  • JLG - John le Gallais, Jersey, 1846-1874, previously in partnership with Thomas de Gruchy. Gold wedding rings, mourning rings advertised but none now known, tablespoons, teaspoons, medals for the Royal Visit of 1846. His mark is found overstruck on those of the makers of London-made tablespoons, teaspoons and egg spoons, some with local bright-cutting. Le Gallais frequently used a J placemark, in addition to a crown apparently copied either from the Sheffield hallmark or from that used on English goldwares. A crown mark had previously been used by a number of Channel Islands goldsmiths.
  • JP - Jean Perchard, Guernsey, 1727-1758. Platter at Forêt, Guernsey, baluster mug.
  • JPG - J Pope Genge, Jersey, 1870-1899. His mark is found overstruck on those of Exeter, London and Sheffield makers, paten at Grouville, London 1886, locally-engraved spoons, Exeter and London 1872-1896, Militia spoons, Exeter, London and Sheffield, 1877-1893, advertised lorgnons and lorgnettes, some of which would presumably have been of gold or silver.
  • JQ - Jacques Quesnel I and II, Jersey, 1780-1843. An unmarked gold medal of 1804 may be his, in view of his apparent monopoly of the market in militia goods. The obverse shows the powder magazine of St Helier on fire, below the Eye of Providence and a scroll bearing the motto NON SIBI SED PATRIAE. On the reverse the inscription The Gift of the States of the island of Jersey to William Pentenay, of the 31st Regt Infy.... Chalice and paten dated 1795, ecclesiastical ewer at Grouville dated 1781, baptismal dish at Grouville dated 1782, two-handled cup, christening cup, 3 beakers, skewer, cheese scoop, sauce ladles, trefid spoons, sugar tongs, fiddle pattern sifter spoons, forks, caddy spoon, old English pattern tablespoons, one dated 1811, fiddlepattern tablespoon, fiddle-pattern dessert spoon, fiddlepattern table fork, bright-cut teaspoons, teaspoons, salt spoons. Militia and Artillery prize spoons, invariably dated. Militia sword-hilts. Militia shoulder-plates. Overmarked London-made tablespoon. Quesnel frequently used a J placemark, sometimes striking it twice or thrice. He also used a cannon mark, apparently on Artillery prize spoons.
  • LC - Unknown, Jersey, c 1760-1800. Two-handled presentation cup to Captain S Owen of the Exmouth, two-handled cups, 2 baluster mugs, baluster cream jug, 2 christening cups, Jersey beaker, straight-sided beaker, gilt inside, soup ladle, sugar-nips, sugar tongs, trefid spoons, tablespoons, one dated 1798, teaspoons. Masonic jewel dated 1801. LC sometimes used a J placemark, and a forgery of the English duty mark of George III, of the rightfacing cameo type introduced in 1786. This is conceivably the mark of Mr Chevalier.
  • LP crowned - Unknown, Jersey, c1710. Trefid spoon.
  • LP - Unknown, Jersey, c1720. 2 christening cups, pap boat, trefid spoons. This is conceivably the mark of Louis Poignand, or a later mark of the LP known circa 1710.
  • LS - Unknown, Jersey, c1710. Wine cup for the private communion of the Emily family of Trinity, 3 trefid spoons.
  • M - Unknown, Jersey, c1780. Sugar tongs or possibly tongue-scraper. If this is indeed a tongue-scraper, of which somewhat similar examples are known in London-marked silver and in tortoiseshell, it may have been made by one of the watchmakers, who also worked as opticians and supplied small personal articles as well as spectacles. Possible makers with this initial are James Mitchell, known in 1792, who advertised as Watchmaker to the Prince of Wales, and Charles Martin Mauger, a watchmaker known in 1810. John Marley III of Dartmouth c1780 also used the mark M
  • NBD - Nicholas Blondell, Guernsey, 1719-1776. Spoons and buckles are recorded, but are not now known, and may have been of brass. His mark is known from a clock-weight.
  • PA - Pierre Amiraux I, II, and perhaps III, Jersey, 1696-1808. Ecclesiastical flagons at St Helier and Câtel, Guernsey, dated 1766 and 1768, baptismal dish at St Peter dated 1775, 4 coffee pots, wine cups at St Helier dated 1767 and 1777, 8 two-handled cups, 3 christening cups, 6 beakers, baluster mugs, snuffers tray, sugar caster, sugar nips, bright-cut sugar tongs, sugar nips, 3-legged salts, trefid spoons, 1 dated 1696, 1 dated 1700, dog-nose spoons, serving spoon, tablespoons, teaspoons, buckles, piece with the mark GS overstruck. The dated trefid spoons clearly belong to Pierre Amiraux I.
  • PB - Unknown, Jersey. c1730-1750. Footed paten at St Ouen dated 1743, bullet teapots, wine cup, beaker, 2 christening cups, 2 trefid spoons, 2 tablespoons. This cannot be the mark of Pierre Boucher, since he died in or before 1687.
  • PD - Philippe le Vavasseur dit Durell, Jersey, c1700-1745. Bullet teapot, 5 two-handled cups, baluster mug, 7 christening cups, beaker, 3 trefid spoons, 4 tablespoons.
  • PM - Pierre Maingy, Guernsey, c.1755-1775. Ecclesiastical flagon at Forêt dated 1756, 2 ecclesiastical wine cups dated 1757 15 christening cups, 3 Jersey christening cups with foot-rims, 2 threelegged cream jugs, 5 beakers, 3-legged salts, trencher salts, sugar nips, tablespoons, teaspoon. His mark is found overstruck on that of Guillaume Henry on a christening cup.
  • PN - Unknown, Jersey, c1750-1790. Hot-water jug with chinoiserie decoration, gilt bowl, bright-cut sugar tongs, trefid spoon, tablespoons, bright-cut and plain teaspoons, bright-cut child's spoon. A pair of sugar-tongs by this man struck with a J placemark show him to be a Jersey and not a Guernsey maker as had been previously supposed. An N or Z struck occasionally may be a copy of an English date letter.
  • PP - Unknown, Jersey, 18th century. Christening cup. The mark on this cup appears to be that of Pierre Pannelier of Paris, 1744-1750, except in the placing of the grainde-remède, and it may have been made to order in France for a Jersey customer, or by a French member of the family to whom the christening cup was intended. French silverware intended for export did not require to be hallmarked, and only bore the maker's mark, as is evidenced by a number of pieces in former French Canada.
  • PP - Pierre Poignand, Jersey, 1809-1826. 2 old-English pattern tablespoons. Known to have sold gold rings, but none have been identified.
  • PS? - Pierre Saint, Jersey, 1687. Nothing known.
  • PW - Peter Webb, Guernsey? and Southampton, c 1680. Christening cup in Sark. English trefid spoon. Another member of this family, William Webb, made wavy-end spoons at Winchester, c1690-1700.
  • R - Guillaume Henry, Guernsey. This mark may appear in isolation, as well as with his normal mark, GH, and does so on a footed salver at Câtel, Guernsey, dated 1735.
  • RB - Robert Barbedor, Jersey and Guernsey, c1677-1704. Punch bowl, platter at St Helier dated 1704, wine cup, 2 Guernsey christening mugs with fluted bowls, sugar bowl, tostevin, trefid spoon, 2 wavy-end spoons. His marks are also overstruck on those of two London-made wine-cups at Forêt, Guernsey, dated 1698, on a St Malo? made porringer of 1700, and on a French wine cup. A difficulty could arise in distinguishing this man's mark from that of his father, and in distinguishing work done by him in France from that done in the Channel Islands, because French silverware destined for export, for instance to the Channel Islands, was not required to be hallmarked, and might bear only its maker's mark. That such pieces frequently bore only their maker's marks is apparent from material in collections in former French Canada.
  • SH - Unknown, Guernsey, c1760. Christening cup. This mark may equally well be read as HS.
  • SO - Unknown, Guernsey, c1710. Rat-tail trefid spoon
  • SR – Unknown, Guernsey. c1790. 4 christening cups, one dated 1790.
  • SR - Simon Russell, Guernsey 1989- .The son of Bruce Russell currently working in the family firm of Bruce Russell and Son. See entry for the mark BR
  • TB - Unknown, Jersey. c1650-1660. Wine cup at St Clement, 1659.
  • TB - Thomas Bouton, Jersey, c1770. Trefid spoons, tablespoons, teaspoons, salt shovels. A similar mark was used circa 1805-1806 by Thomas Burgher of New York.
  • TC - Thomas Cartault, Jersey, c1725-1736. 3 christening cups, beaker, spade-end rat-tail Spoon, 3 trefid rat-tail spoons, teaspoon, buckles.
  • TD - Thomas le Vavasseur dit Durell, Jersey, c1634-1680. Platter at St John dated 1677.
  • TDG - Thomas de Gruchy, Jersey, 1822-1831, and later in partnership with John le Gallais. Gold gem-set rings, gold wedding rings, skewer, bright-cut tablespoon dated 1831, tablespoons, teaspoons.
  • TDG and JLG - Thomas de Gruchy and John le Gallais, Jersey, 1831-1846. Gold wedding rings, wine label, soterne, fiddle-pattern dessert fork, sugar nips, tablespoons, bright-cut tablespoons dated 1841 and 1844, fiddle-pattern dessert fork, mustard spoon, teaspoons.
  • TM? - Thomas Mourin, Jersey, 1501-1628. 2 wine cups for St Martin's, 1601 (lost)
  • TM - Thomas David Mauger, Jersey, c1730-1796. two-handled cups. 4 baluster mugs. 6 christening cups, 3 beakers, tostevin, marrow scoop, 2 gilt trefid spoons, trefid spoons, one dated 1746, dog-nose spoons, tablespoons, shell-back and other teaspoons, coffee spoons.
  • TM - Thomas Mansell, Guernsey, c1700. Trefid spoon with initials IAL
  • TM - Unknown, Guernsey, c1780-1790. Christening cups, two-handled cup, christening cups with London and older Guernsey marks overstruck. A mark reportedly used by this maker consists of TM in a lozenge with two fleurs-de-lys. If English conventions were observed, this would denote a business continued by the maker's widow. However, it may simply be a copy of the new style of French marks introduced in the Napoleonic reforms of the French assay offices, which in turn would suggest that this maker was still working circa 1800.
  • TN and pellet - Thomas Andrew Naftel, Guernsey, c1790-1820. Christening cup with London marks overstruck.
  • TP - This mark appears on a basting spoon cl780 and a miniature teapot both previously ascribed to a Jersey maker. However this mark is that of Thomas Peard of Penryn, Cornwall, 1731-1745. A brandy-saucepan and communion plate by him are also known as is a Communion Cup at Budock, near Penryn made in 1735. Peard married at Budock in 1743. Peard was registered at Exeter Assay Office. Thomas Purse of Baltimore, 1776-1823, used a similar mark.
  • TQ - Probably a mark of Jacques Quesnel, see under JQ, struck with a damaged punch. Old English pattern tablespoon.
  • WY - William Young, Jersey, 1688-1693. Platter at Grouville dated 1688.
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