The Great Rebellion - Parliamentary invasion
On Wednesday 15 October the men were embarked, 'the winds and weather smiling upon them' and on Friday the expedition sailed from Weymouth, passing the Nothe about 4 in the afternoon. The fleet comprised some 80 sail, including transports, Blake's flag flying on the Happy Entrance, the largest of the men-of-war.
The military forces consisted of Heane's own regiment, six companies of Sir Hardress Waller's foot and two troops of horse commanded by Captains West and Margerum, in all somewhere about 2,000 men, to which two more companies were to be added at Guernsey. The invasion from Scotland had delayed the departure until the season of autumnal gales, and by the time the ships were about five leagues out, a gale from the north-east was blowing with such force as to cause considerable damage, and the fleet was obliged to put back to Weymouth as there was danger of the open boats foundering in the heavy seas.
At 10 o'clock on Sunday morning, the rough weather having somewhat abated, a fresh start was made amid acclamations and encouragement from the people of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis. This was attended with better success, and by midnight the fleet cast anchor under the lee of Sark, that island together with Brecqhou providing shelter from the north-east, whereas the roadstead at Guernsey was exposed to the full fury of the gale and the harbour itself too small for more than a few ships. Although the rough weather continued, the fleet put to sea early on the following day. Pierre le Roy, the Guernsey diarist, mentions that the army of the Parliament passed one Monday morning on its way to Jersey ... and there were about 100 ships and 3,000 men, a generous estimate compared with the official account.
By noon the expedition had reached its destination and cast anchor in St Ouen's Bay, but the sea was still so rough that it was impossible to hoist the small boats out of the ships to get ashore. St Ouen's Bay has always been a favourite landing-place with invaders of Jersey; it extends along the major portion of the West coast, from L'Etac to Corbiere Point, a distance of some four miles; rocks make it dangerous both North and South but in the area between there is good anchorage for large vessels and shelter from easterly gales, though it is very exposed when the wind blows from the opposite quarter.
This roadstead, Port de la Mare, is so called from La Mare de St Ouen, a large pool not far from the shore in the middle of the bay which has an outlet to the sea and which in the 17th century may have afforded shelter for fishing-boats. Port de la Mare is marked out in the bay in Lempriere's map published in 1694 and Chevalier says it was situated opposite the two parishes of St Ouen and St Pierre, the boundary between which lies a little south of the pool. It was on the beach of St Pierre that the landing eventually took place. All along the shore from L'Etac to La Pulente, and for some distance inland, were dunes formed of sand blown in by the strong westerly winds which prevail nearly all the year round on this side of the Island.
Not far from the shore was the fortified manor of St Ouen, where lived Sir Philip Carteret who, as soon as the fleet hove in sight, immediately sent a messenger to Elizabeth Castle to inform Sir George. The bells of all twelve parishes were rung to call up the militia and the ringer at St Saviour pulled so vigorously in his excitement that the bell was broken.
Defenders arrive in bay
After mustering his troops and arranging for some of the most trustworthy civilians to replace the soldiers at the Castle, Sir George repaired to St Ouen's Bay. His forces comprised some 150 horse, a like number of dragoons and his own company of 120 fusiliers. The militia of St Helier, St Saviour and St Clement went with him but that of St Brelade had orders to guard its own bay, while that of Grouville was forbidden to advance nearer than St Helier in view of a possible attack at Havre-des-Pas or Havre de la Rocque.
By nightfall the militia of all the other parishes had assembled at St Ouen's Bay, with the exception of the men of St Laurent who, affirming that they were responsible only for their own part of St Aubin's Bay, refused to march and remained to guard their fort, but the next morning, having reconsidered the matter, they obeyed orders and went to St Ouen's Bay.
A manuscript in the Priaulx Library at Guernsey in an early 17th century hand relates that the militia of the Island 'consists of 27 companies of foot, well appointed and disciplined, all of them in Red Coates and a Troop of Horse ... There are in every Parish two or three Brass ffield Peeces of three and foure pounds bullets with horses carriadges, gunne(r)s and other attendants. Besides the most suspicious and dangerous places about the coast there are great Iron Peeces placed for defence with men appointed to look after them should there be occasion.'
The Clarendon Manuscript, which describes the reduction of Jersey, supplements this by saying that the militia of each parish was regularly drilled three or four times every year, but that since the commanders were generally chosen on account of their birth and wealth, rather than for their military efficiency, Sir George had taken the precaution of stiffening his local forces with experienced officers. When Lord Danby was in Jersey in 1629 at the time of the expected French attack on the Channel Islands, his Chaplain Peter Heylyn found the 'Souldiers of each Regiment very well arrayed and not unpractised in their Armes ; but such as never saw more danger than a Training came to,' and similarly the militia of 1651 had no experience of actual warfare to pit against the soldiers of the New Model.
All the afternoon the sea continued rough and Blake found it impossible to attempt a landing. When at nightfall the wind went down, Carteret tried to persuade some Flemish sailors to take the fireships he had in readiness among the enemy fleet, but they declined to run the risk and nothing was done. Early next morning a double shallop was dispatched from the flagship bearing a letter from Heane to the Islanders, inviting them to surrender and so avoid bloodshed which otherwise would be inevitable. He told them that if they would submit they need have no fear that he would quarter his troops upon them as he was prepared to pay for whatever might be required.
Both Blake and Heane knew that in any case the power of the Parliament must prevail, but they had no desire to inflict unnecessary suffering on to the inhabitants if it could be avoided. This letter was never delivered, for Carteret, knowing that the majority of his forces were only too ready to yield without fighting, ordered cannon to be trained on the boat and fired several shot, so that she was forced to return to the fleet.
What the Clarendon Manuscript calls "cette genereuse prudence" nearly caused a mutiny. His men, even the most loyal, protested that at the very least the mission might have been given a hearing. Carteret was roundly abused for refusing to discuss proposals of peace, which before long he would be forced to accept willy-nilly; with the King utterly undone and, indeed, rumoured dead, and all the other Royalist strongholds subdued, it was absurd for a small island to hold out against the might of the Parliament.
They averred that they had been faithful to the King, as long as was possible, but that he had no right to expect them to compass what was impossible. The majority of the Islanders had no wish to fight, they were weary of the strife and worn out by the heavy taxation imposed by Carteret during the previous eight years. Although when Lydcot fled in 1643 those in favour of the Parliament were only a small though active minority, Sir George's high-handed methods and extortionate taxation had considerably sapped the loyalty of the remainder, and most of them were quite ready to submit at once, for they foresaw the inevitable end.
As soon as the shallop returned, Blake, seeing that peaceful overtures were useless, ordered sail to be hoisted in some of the frigates, which came close inshore and began bombarding. The local forces, who had never imagined that ships of that size would dare to come within musket-shot of the beach, were terrified and prepared to beat a retreat, seeing which Carteret withdrew them behind the dunes while he and some of his officers remained in the open to give them confidence. After a while, becoming accustomed to the thunder of the guns, the Islanders returned and began to fire their muskets at the ships, calling the Parliament men traitors, rebels and murderers of their King.
The bombardment lasted some four hours during which over 500 cannon shot were said to have been fired, which killed seven or eight men and wounded a few others. Those on shore replied as best they could from the forts along the bay, and with their muskets and small field pieces, but with little effect, though the Eagle frigate, 'running nere the Shoare to fyre upon the enemy received a shott which pierct through her side and dropped in her howld but did noe further harm'.
The rough weather continued and Blake decided to sail round to St Brelade's Bay to find out if conditions there might not be more favourable for his purpose. When Carteret saw the ships moving off, he dared not risk a landing with only the parochial forces to oppose it, and had perforce to march his own men to St Brelade in support. They arrived some time before the fleet, which had to sail well out to sea to avoid the Corbiere rocks, and when the ships came into the bay they were fired at by bodies of troops drawn up on the beach, as well as from two batteries.
With the object of dividing the enemy forces as far as possible. Blake sent part of his fleet eastwards to the bays of St Aubin and St Clement and other ships were ordered to return to St Ouen's Bay, which constrained Carteret to send back about 300 men under command of Sir Philip, with instructions to break up into small bodies in order to appear more numerous than they were.
Blake now had to consider the position at St Brelade defended by its two batteries, its own militia and Carteret's reinforcements. The bay afforded good anchorage on its western side and was sheltered all round by high ground. Moreover, time pressed, for the horses were suffering from being so long in the ships and forage was running very short, so about 6 o'clock it was decided that in spite of the bad weather, the landing should be made there on the following day. However, during the evening the wind dropped and within a short time the sea went down and at 3 am a council was held aboard the flagship when it was carried by vote that in view of the improved weather conditions, the descent should be made in St Ouen's bay, 'as being the most convenient place to land in'.
- 'In true Puritan spirit the Council craved a blessing on the undertaking resolving to improve the Lord's goodness in that seasonable weather and that morning to goe on.'
Blake ordered the open boats and vessels that carried the horse and foot to be manned out of his own ships, those from England refusing to run their vessels aground. Probably this refers to the hired auxiliary craft, whose owners would naturally wish to avoid the risk of damage by beaching. At 5 am the officers began to transfer the men from the ships into the small boats (longues chaloupes) which then proceeded to sail round to St Ouen's Bay.
During the night, which was fairly clear, Carteret watched the movements of the enemy from low tide rocks in the bay, estimating the forces at 4,000 men, according to the Clarendon Manuscript — generally unreliable as to figures — instead of about 2,000 by the official account, for the additional forces from Guernsey had not yet arrived. As soon as day broke the Lieut-Governor reviewed the Island troops and was surprised to find the members greatly diminished. He made no comment for fear of alarming those present who imagined that the absentees had been given leave for rest and refreshment. Afterwards, leaving the dragoons and fusiliers to help the local militia guard St Brelade, he returned to St Ouen's Bay with the rest of his men. Before sailing from St Brelade, Blake ordered some of the warships to remain and these now sailed close inshore and began a bombardment.
- "When we weighed from Brelade's bay, the General, to amuse and distract the enemy to keep them in alarum, left a part of the fleet there and by their guns and shooting in their boats did so alarm them that the Pastor of a village in that bay with his flock and the forces ran away to Elizabeth Castle."
Wait for tide
The Admiral had intended that the landing should take place that morning, but by the time the boats came round to St Ouen's bay, the sea had begun to ebb, so he had to wait until the next tide. He found that, during his absence at St Brelade, Major Harrison with 200 soldiers had arrived from Guernsey, as well as the 16 ships which had run there for shelter after being scattered by the storm. While waiting for the tide, Blake proceeded to harass the enemy by crossing the bay as if to make a descent at L'Etac; the fleet sailed in battle array, led by the flagship with frigates, shallops and other craft in train.
Carteret's weary troops had to follow along the sandy shore, their discomfiture being further increased by a steady fine rain, but instead of landing at L'Etac, Blake put his ships about and sailed back across the bay and once more the wretched Islanders had to follow.
- "The frigate Elizabeth, Phoenix, Battery ship and Eagle began to play upon the forts with great guns and so continued near two hours continually pelting insomuch that they did execution both on horse and foot and prevented them getting into bodies.'
The execution does not appear to have been severe, as according to one account the casualties were one horse and two men. Nevertheless the Islanders were so tired and disheartened that they were disposed to bolt, and Carteret had some difficulty in holding them, indeed he did so at the risk of his life for some of the men levelled muskets at him. By nightfall he had them in some sort of order and was able to bivouac the foot near high water mark along the beach of St Pierre, in as much comfort as circumstances permitted, the horse going a little distance inland to find forage.
Meanwhile the Parliament men had had 'a trying time, all day in open boats in the rain without bread or beere, and the waves so choppy that there was danger of being capsized'.
Towards evening, the firing on both sides died down, the rain ceased and the sea began to moan as it always does on that coast when a storm is brewing. In the darkness Carteret paced the beach keeping watch on the enemy; high tide was about 9 and an hour or so later standing at the water's edge he was able to make out a large ship hauling on her anchor, as if to come inshore. After sending for the horse and giving orders for the disposal of the foot, he made enquiries among the local sailors and fishermen if it were possible for so large a vessel to run aground at that state of the tide, to which they all replied 'No', but immediately afterwards two cannon shot from the ship convinced them to the contrary; evidently the enemy was about to attack.
Having issued more orders he went to meet the cavalry, which was slow in coming up, and found it greatly diminished in numbers. The officers told him that many of the men had taken flight, and urged him to do the same and not to throw away his life 'in sheer gayete de coeur' while at the same time they assured him of their readiness to obey his orders. 'Then said he "Come on, in the name of God, that it may not be said we would not fight".'
Meanwhile the Parliament men were rapidly nearing the land. As the wind freshened from off the sea a number of boats hoisted sail and stood in for the shore, many 'cutting their cables for expedition's sake'. All the Captains of the Fleet took their boats and Captains Coffin (Coppin) Reeves, Taylor, Blake, Cuttance and Golding (Gething) 'did very gallantly in this service'. When about 11 o'clock the boats grounded, some drew 3 feet of water and some as much as 7 feet. The men in the farther boats climbed over those nearer and all jumped into the sea, some waist deep, some up to their necks, and waded ashore while the guns from La Pulente fired at them through the darkness.
The Clarendon Manuscript says that the shallops were provided with great bridges, by means of which ten men abreast could get to land, but there is no mention of these in any of the other accounts which all describe the men as jumping into the sea. As the Roundheads were getting ashore Carteret's cavalry charged, some of the horses going into the water right up to the bows of the boats, but Heane's men withstood them valiantly, even though at one time there was danger of being forced back into the sea.
Foot soldiers disperse
For half an hour the conflict raged and it might have lasted longer had the Island foot been in support while the horse reloaded. Of the former all that remained were a few of the St Helier militia and the St Ouen contingent, kept steady by their Seigneur, but though they fired three or four volleys, they were of little use; the horse were reforming for a second charge when their commander, Colonel Bosville, was badly wounded and this so disorganised them that they broke and fled with the rest. Colonel Bosville, who was highly valued by Carteret, died a few days later at Elizabeth Castle. He was a devoted Royalist who had been several times imprisoned for secretly conveying letters to Charles I, on one occasion at Holmby House shortly before the King was carried off by Cornet Joyce (now commander of Portland Castle and Lt-Colonel of Heane's regiment).
It was Bosville who took the letters from Jersey to the King when he was imprisoned at Carisbrooke. He seems to have been a master of disguise and clever at escaping from his Roundhead captors.
Carteret was forced to retreat. All the guns had been deserted by their crews, and he only managed to save two, which were dragged off by some of the few men who remained with him. One of the Parliament accounts says that 'as soon we had routed those that charged, he ran away like one riding post.'
A Jersey historian, probably with more truth, for Carteret was no coward, relates that after the rout of the horse a few cannon shot were fired from La Pulente, but seeing that the invaders took no heed of this feeble demonstration, he prudently departed to Elizabeth Castle. He first made his way to St Brelade to find the guns and batteries there deserted, although the bombardment of the previous day had not been followed by a landing; from thence he went on to St Aubin's Tower and after enjoining the little garrison to stand firm and promising to send supplies, he crossed the water to Elizabeth Castle.
Meanwhile at St Ouen's Bay all the enemy had fled by the time the horse and the rest of the foot were ashore. Heane drew up his forces on the beach, prepared for an attack which never came; there were merely a few desultory shot through the darkness from the low hills to the east. After waiting about an hour, they marched a short distance inland taking possession of six or seven guns en route. Here the men were rested until about 5 am and then marched along the shore towards St Brelade, drawing up on some hilly ground overlooking the bay where parties brought in sundry prisoners and colours. The officers tried to get food for the tired and hungry men, but before succeeding they had to march them down to the village where 12 more guns were found, but no enemy.
St Aubin's Tower
After a short rest they went on eastwards and by 3 pm had reached the high ground overlooking St Aubin's bay, with Elizabeth Castle about two miles distant. Here they found another fort with two more guns, likewise deserted: below them to the left lay the town of St Aubin, with its little harbour, and near this St Aubin's Tower, a small fortress which like Elizabeth Castle becomes an island at high water. The Tower had been considerably strengthened during the Civil War, when Chancellor Hyde was living at the Castle; it now had 14 guns and a small garrison which surrendered promptly upon Heane's summons.
Possession of the Tower was to prove invaluable to the invaders, as the bay provides good anchorage of which Blake was quick to take advantage; a number of ships were already there in shelter from the weather and protected by the guns of the Tower, when on the following day the storm from the west blew up which had been threatening on the night of the landing. The bay is difficult of entrance owing to submerged rocks and Lady Fanshawe describes the amazement of the Islanders in April 1646 when she and her husband arrived with the Prince of Wales on board the Phoenix, the pilot not knowing the way into the harbour sailed over the rocks, but being spring tide and by chance high-water, 'God be praised, his Highness and all of us came safe ashore through so great a danger'.
All Blake's ships got in safely but unfortunately the Tresco, commanded by the Admiral's cousin George Blake, anchored too near the guns of Elizabeth Castle and, in trying to alter her position, struck one of the submerged rocks and foundered with all hands. The Tresco was a frigate of 24 guns, taken by Blake at Scilly only five months before; previously known as the Michael, she had been a noted pirate and had captured many prizes. Only the year before she had been in Jersey en route from St Malo to Scilly.
Her crew numbered 70 and as Chevalier says that some dozen or so of the men had taken her boat and gone off on a pillaging expedition to St Brelade, they cannot all have gone down when she foundered, so that the 300 men drowned according to the Clarendon Manuscript is certainly exaggerated.
The storm was still raging on Sunday when Blake wrote his dispatch to Lenthall saying the weather was so bad that he could not communicate with the shore. St Ouen s Bay is open to the full fury of westerly gales and several of the barques and smaller craft which had been beached at the landing were dashed to pieces and others were more or less badly knocked about. The battering ships are also mentioned as being damaged, though to what extent was not known. The expedition had indeed experienced bad weather, first driven back to Weymouth and even after the second start it was so rough that the fleet was scattered and, when most of the ships came together again, there was danger of getting foul of each other and foundering in the heavy seas.
Landing troops in the face of an active enemy is always a risky operation but the perils are multiplied when it has to he done in tempestuous weather on a dangerous coast where submerged rocks and cross currents abound.
As soon as the Tower surrendered, Heane, alive to the importance of cutting communications between the chief town and the fortress, pushed on to St Helier making a detour behind Gallows Hill to avoid the exposed road along the shore, and that night the weary troops were quartered in the town and Elizabeth Castle was blockaded. Early next morning Heane summoned Carteret, who refused to surrender, though his reply was scarcely the scurrilous answer recorded by Hilliard. During the day eight companies of foot under Majors Ebzery and Harrison and Capt Margerum's horse arrived in the town and, leaving them in possession there, Heane took his own regiment and Captain West's horse on to Gorey to invest Mont Orgueil Castle.
Despatches to Speaker
About 9 pm the troops encamped on the rough ground north-west of the headland, called the Coney Warren, while Blake, riding in the safe anchorage of St Catherine's bay, blockaded by sea. Here on Sunday, he wrote his dispatch to the Speaker.
- "It hath pleased God that after much conflicting with seas and winds and other difficulties and a short dispute with the enemy about 11 at night on Wednesday last, our forces landed on the south side of the island in a bay called Portala Mar with good resolution and success. The enemy after a hot charge with their horse, flying before them, forsaking divers small works and forts; the next day our men took by surrender the Tower of St Aubin, with 14 guns in it, which affordeth refuge and shelter for our victualling ships and others. Carteret is gone to Elizabeth Castle which is blockt up by a party. The rest of our men are now about the fort of Mount Orgel, our ships riding before it. We have not lost above four or five men as far as I can learn; some barques and other vessels are still in that bay aground and have received some damage since the landing; it hath been such weather, as I could not have intercourse with the shore so that I cannot give your Honour a perfect narrative. Yet I thought it my duty to sent away this short account of what is done.
- Aboard the Happy Entrance in the Road of St Katherine, 26 October 1651.
- Your Honour's most humble servant, Rob Blake.
On the following day Heane wrote to the Speaker.
- "Right Honourable, it hath pleased the Lord to give you all the island and the forts of Jersey with the loss of very few men: a narrative of the whole I have sent your honour; there are two castles stand in defiance of me. I have summoned them sharply. I cannot possibly this week bring any mortar pieces to play against the Old Castle but when I am fully prepared I doubt not but to give you good account of it. Elizabeth Castle is so strong and environed with water, that I am hopeless of taking it a long time.
- Your Lordship's and the Commonwealth's humble servant, J A Heane
- From the Leaguer befor Mount Orguille Castle in Jersey this 27 October 1651.
The narrative was an account written by Captain Hilliard of Heane's regiment, it and the two dispatches were licensed by the Clerk in Parliament and published in Several Proceedings No 110 (October 30 — November 6). A brief account of the landing had appeared the previous week with a list of the other parts of the Island already subdued — The fort at Sentwon Bay, St Albanes, St Ouen's Mannor, St Jermain's, Gronesse Castle, Castle de Leke, the Fort at Bewley, St Hillary, the chiefe towne, Brelade's Bay. Probably most of these had fallen to Ebzery and Harrison before they arrived at St Helier on Saturday. The dispatches and the narrative were carried to England by Heane's son, Captain William Heane, and Cornet Dober, who must have left Jersey on Monday (27 October) for on Wednesday the Council of State desired Mr Bond to report them to Parliament.
Heane and Denis Bond were personal friends and no doubt the latter as MP for Dorchester and a prominent man in the Council of State had had a great deal to do with the preparations for the expedition. Bond read the papers before Parliament on Thursday and the House set apart a special day for thanksgiving in the Churches and ordered that William Heane should receive a gratuity of £100 and Dober one of £50 for bringing the good news of the taking of Jersey.
Heane summoned Mont Orgueil the morning after the investment, offering generous terms but promising stern reprisals if but one of his men were killed. He required 'a speedy answer before I am put to the trouble of bringing up my Train of Artillery and Mortar pieces hither.' Colonel Philip Carteret replied somewhat truculently, asking for a safe-conduct to go and confer with his brother Sir George, which Heane refused. Whereupon Carteret threatened to starve the prisoners in the Castle, to which Heane only sent a verbal reply.
Terms of surrender
The next day 'Carteret's stomach came down' and he wrote that he had been assured of Heane's 'honest and loving intent and good will towards us' and promised to send a Commissioner, to which Heane agreed, appointing a place of meeting at 10 o'clock that night. Apparently the Commissioner did not arrive, for the following day Carteret sent an apology saying he wished to send two. Heane again agreed and the commissioners were sent, but after the terms of surrender had been signed, Carteret tried to get them altered.
Heane curtly refused, telling him to send the prisoners and contemptuously promised a safe conduct for Carteret himself if he liked to come to him to debate the point of honour in sending such a letter after a final conclusion. Carteret sent the prisoners that night and next morning the Castle was evacuated and Major Harding of Heane's regiment took possession at 2 pm.
The terms were generous: Carteret was allowed to retain his estates and to take away two horses and the Commissioners, Captains Dumaresq and Le Hardy, one each. An act of oblivion for past offences was granted to all and such of the garrison, some 60 men, as desired to go to Elizabeth Castle to have passes and those who desired to go beyond sea to have free passage. In the Castle were found 42 guns, 1,000 arms and a quantity of ammunition, together with two months provision for 70 men.
Puritan Captain Hilliard marvelled at the speedy rendition, 'truely I cannot but wonder to see how the Lord Both strike these people with fear and terror that they should soe suddenly deliver upp such a strong hold. It is seated very high upon a round rock that in my judgement it is neither stormable nor to be injured by mortar pieces'.
No doubt with a loyal garrison the Castle might have held out for a time, but the men knew that the Parliament must prevail sooner or later and Sir George's tyranny had killed any desire to prolong the struggle. Chevalier says that Philip Carteret capitulated on the advice of his father-in-law, Mr Elie de la Place, who went to the Castle to counsel surrender but according to the Clarendon Manuscript he was forced to give in by the garrison, who threatened to hand him over to Heane.
Of the prisoners there were 67 soldiers captured in the recent assault on Cornet Castle, as well as a number of Jerseymen who either because of their political sympathies or for refusing to pay the taxes imposed by Sir George had been kept in durance for varying periods of time. Among these was Jean de la Rue who had been in Mont Orgueil for eight years.
On 19 November Parliament approved and confirmed the Articles of rendition and resolved that a Letter of Thanks be sent to General Blake and Colonel James Heane 'and their officers and soldiers for their good service and that Mr Speaker do sign the said Letter'.