The de Carterets and Sark

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Bel Air

Excerpts from The Story of Sark by Allan de Carteret, 1956

Helier de Carteret, the Seigneur of St Ouen, was a shrewd man. Having obtained the commission’s consent in principle, he went to Sark, and ploughing a small patch of land, planted wheat, whose subsequent crop was to determine whether he would take up the concession granted him. The following summer proved that the land was fertile and capable of supporting a population, and on 6 August 1565 the Queen granted him permission to colonise the Island, and in due course conferred upon him the seigneurial rights, by which he was created the first Lord of Sark.

First seigneur

Helier was the son of Sir Edward de Carteret, the previous Seigneur of St Ouen, and a descendant of the long unbroken line of de Carterets of that famous Manor, who had first landed in Jersey in 950 AD. In 1563, still a comparatively young man, he had been married for several years to his first cousin, Margaret, the only daughter and heiress of his uncle, Helier de Carteret, Bailiff of Jersey.

By Margaret, who had previously been married to Clement Dumaresq, Seigneur of Samares, Helier had three children, all sons. Philippe, the oldest of these boys, was later to succeed his father as Seigneur of St Ouen and Sark. Born in 1552, he married, on 10 January 1580, Rachel, the only child of George Poulet, Bailiff of Jersey, at Mont Orgueil Castle.

The second son, Amias, was the founder of the line of de Carterets of Trinity. At Trinity Church, on 10 October 1578, he married Catherine, only child of Gilles Lempriere, Seigneur of Trinity. Catherine died at Castle Cornet, Guernsey, on 2 December 1610, and Amias erected a tablet to her memory in the Town Church at St Peter Port.

Coastline of Sark

Amias has his own special place in the history of the Channel Islands, for, though a Jerseyman, he became Jurat of the Royal Court of Guernsey and later Lieut-Governor and Bailiff of that Island, being the only man ever to hold the two offices at the same time. He died in Guernsey and was buried in the Town Church on 16 April 1631. The third son, William, became a Jurat of the Royal Court of Jersey.

Well satisfied with his experiments on Sark, Helier left his Manor at St Ouen and crossed to the Island with his wife and family and a number of kindred spirits. There were no houses of any kind on Sark, and for shelter they established themselves temporarily in the ruins of St Magloire’s monastery and in the chapel which stood on the present site of the old Manoir.

It seems that the ruins were not at all commodious, because the immigrants soon set about building for themselves rough shelters of bracken, stone and furze. This rough accommodation was all of a piece with the hard life which confronted them. Except for the small patch which Helier had cultivated for his experiment, the Island was overgrown with brambles and furze.

Everything they needed, horses, oxen, cattle, food, tools and seed, and building materials had to be brought to the Island from either Jersey or Guernsey. Roads had to be made, houses built and the land cleared and the depredations of wild animals which abounded in the Island had to be overcome.

Margaret de Carteret was a woman of her times. Even so, her courage in accompanying her husband to this desolate island must have been outstanding. Her presence among the colonists and the example she set them, contributed much to the success of the venture.

But Margaret was not the only woman in the company. Under the Letters Patent by which Queen Elizabeth granted Helier the concession, he was to take with him 40 men. Such men would naturally have to share de Carteret’s own venturesome qualities and be hardy adventurers, willing to accept the arduous life and the strenuous work necessary to make a success of the new colony.

Many of those he chose were married men, who were prepared to take their wives and families with them. This was a wise and shrewd move, for with the women as homemakers the men would be more content, and the presence of their families would act as a spur. Of the original 40, 35 were Jerseymen and their families, the remaining five coming from Guernsey.

La Coupée

Early colonists

Among the first requirements of the colonists were houses to protect them from the elements, and Helier at once begun to build a house for himself and Margaret next to the ruined chapel of St Magloire on the site of the old Manoir. By the side of the modern Manoir building there is a long, low house; this is the original house erected by Helier and his son Philippe as their Manor house.

Having settled upon his harbour, Helier next built a windmill to grind the corn, which, as the years passed, began to be produced in greater and greater quantities on the farms. The site that Helier selected was on the western extremity of the grounds of the Manor which was the highest point in the Island. The lane which now leads from Le Manoir to the mill was not then in existence as a public thoroughfare, and access to the mill was by a lane 12 feet wide from the Grand Chemin past the front of La Vaurocque farm house.

It was a good solid structure of stone, and when it was completed a weathervane, bearing the date 1571, was placed on its summit. The mill, still surmounted by the original weathervane, stands to this day, though because the little corn now produced in Sark is sent to the Seigneurie to be ground, it is unused and is falling into disrepair. At one time, however, it was considered a very valuable asset, for the rent charged for it in 1604 was assessed at the high figure of twenty quarters.

Legend of the Devil

Helier de Carteret was a protestant, a staunch supporter of the Established Church, whose influence on the minds and lives of the people was, in those days, as great as ever had been its predecessor’s. Having, therefore, looked to the care of his companions’ bodies, it was natural that he should next turn his attention to the cure of their souls.

Elie was the uncle of Dr Daniel Brevint, Dean of Lincoln and Prebendary of Durham, who married Anne de Carteret, daughter of Sir Philippe de Carteret, (1583-1644), who was Seigneur of St Ouen and Lieut-Governor and Bailiff of Jersey.

Natural rock arch

It is recorded that a fisherman who was indulging in witchcraft one day on Little Sark succeeded in raising the Devil, who asked him what were his commands. When the fisherman had recovered from his surprise and got back his speech, he said: “You must carry me wherever I order you”.

The Devil agreed on condition that when they reached their destination the man, in his turn, would do whatever he commanded. So the man mounted on Satan’s back and was carried over La Coupee.

“Allez plus loin – go on!” the fisherman ordered when the Devil paused for a rest. Being something of a linguist, Satan understood, and they went on until they came to the Port du Moulin, where the man’s cottage stood, probably at L’Ecluse, which at that time was owned by William de Carteret, the son of Samuel of Little Sark.

As soon as they arrived there, the man cried out in a loud voice: “Au nom de Grand Dieu, arretez!” The Devil put the man down, and fled away shrieking, as the fisherman knew he must at the mention of God’s name.

Sark is also reputed to have had a wizard in the 18th century. He was called Pierre de Carteret and nicknamed Le Vieux Diable – the old devil. He always worked at night, and fisherman who passed his cottage after dark swore that they heard him talking to the little devils who worked for him. They could not understand what he was saying, naturally, for he spoke in the devil’s tongue.

He is said to have built a boat in a single night and to have launched it the next morning in Le Creux harbour, to the astonishment of his fellow islanders, who knew that he had used Black Art, since the boat was too large to go out of the door of the shed in which it had been built, and besides, the shed was nowhere near the sea.

Old Pierre was very wealthy, for his devils did all his work for him without pay. In addition, he had inherited a good sum from his French wife. He had crossed to France alone in a small open boat, and with an eye on the main chance had courted a young woman of gentle birth who believed him to be of equally gentle antecedents.

When he had married her, he was very cruel to her. He destroyed most of her furniture. Her parlour, for example, was mirrored from ceiling to floor, and into this exquisite room Pierre brought her horses, which, becoming frightened by their own reflections, smashed the mirrors with their hooves and destroyed the other furniture.

This young beautiful wife soon died of a broken heart. Pierre then returned to the Island where he married a Sark girl who was little more than a child.

When his hedges needed repairing, he merely gave an order to his little helpers, and the next morning the job was done. Every morning his daughter might be seen driving home the well-fed cow from the churchyard, where she had grazed it all night. Naturally, no one would buy milk or butter produced by this cow.

When Pierre had nothing else for his workers to do, they passed the time forging money. It has been suggested that this money was the origin of the Guernsey coin called a double, eight of which make one penney.

The Avenue

Philippe de Carteret

In 1579 Helier’s son Philippe was 26 and still a bachelor. He was wise, discreet, honest and a strong man, we are told, and was so esteemed by his father that Helier, wishing to return to his Manor at St Ouen, had placed him in charge of Sark.

Philippe, doubtless feeling that a wife would be an asset to him in continuing his father’s work in Sark, began to look around him, and eventually settled his choice on Rachel Poulet, daughter of Sir George Poulet, Captain of the Castle and Governor of Jersey. The Poulets were a distinguished family. Sir George’s brother was Sir Amice Poulet and among their ancestors were numerous knights and nobles.

Helier, seeing certain advantages in an alliance between the House of St Ouen and the Castle, encouraged his son’s suit, and himself approached the Governor on Philippe’s behalf. Sir George also favoured the alliance, and having discussed it with his wife, who also gave her consent, the betrothal was announced.

The marriage was celebrated at Mont Orgueil Castle, Jersey, on 10 January 1580, by the Reverend Mr Walker. It was a splendid affair and a description of it has been included by Syvret, the historian, in his chronicles of the Channel Islands.

The Seigneur of St Ouen, his wife, Philippe and Amice de Carteret, Philippe’s younger brother, and their attendants set out early in the morning from St Ouen. All the Seigneur’s people had gathered before the main gate of the Manor, with their large pieces of artillery and their arquebuses, while 18 ensigns were deployed with their drums beating.

The artillery and the arquebuses were fired “in great triumph and good order”, and when the salute was finished, the wedding party left the Manor and rode to St Peter’s church. At the church all the parishioners of St Peter and all those from the nearby parish of St Brelade awaited them with their artillery, arquebuses and drums beating, and another salute was fired with equally great triumph and good order.

It was a triumphal progress all the way across the Island for the people of the parishes through which they had to pass: St Lawrence, St Helier and St Saviouur, greeted them in the same way. In the town there were scenes of great rejoicing and festivity.

From the Mont de St Helier, the de Carteret party went to Samares Manor, for Jean Dumaresq, eldest son of Jean Dumaresq, Seigneur of Vinchelez and Bailiff of Jersey, had chosen the same day to marry Esther de Saumares at the Castle with great solemnity.

The Harbour

A short time after the ceremony Philippe took his bride to Sark and established her at Le Manoir, the valley opposite running down to Dixcart being their garden. Three children were born to them there: Philippe on 18 February 1584; Elie in the following year; and Rachel on 8 October 1589.

Philippe, who died in 1643, married Anne, daughter of Sir Francis Dowse of Nether Wallop, Hampshire, and had seven sons, Philippe, Francois, Peuton, Zauch, Gedion, Edouard and Dowse, and three daughters, Margaret, Anne and Elizabeth. Elie, who died in 1640, married in Sark on 8 June 1608, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Hugh Dumaresq, of St Martin. Their son Aymes was born in Sark on 26 April 1612.

Rachel married Benjamin La Cloche, Seigneur of Longueville, and their daughter Rachel, born in 1619, married Helier de Carteret, son of Peter de Carteret and Judith Dumaresq. This Helier, who was Attorney-General of Jersey and Seigneur of La Hougue, died in 1668.

These few examples show how very involved the inter-relations of the leading families of Jersey became after a time.

When Philippe had taken charge of Sark as attorney for his father, he soon realised that the rapidly expanding community would prosper only if law and order were established. Although Sark was technically a Fief, and he was only acting Seigneur, he decided that it would be to the advantage of all if the Tenants were given a share in the government of the Island.

Among the first immigrants who had crossed to Sark with Helier de Carteret was his first cousin, Edouard de Carteret, adopted son of that other Helier de Carteret, Bailiff of Jersey. Edouard had had considerable legal experience in Jersey. After serving in many parochial offices he had risen to be the Attorney-General.

Edouard was, therefore, unanimously chosen by the Tenants to be the first Bailiff of Sark. They also appointed as Jurats Julien de Carteret, Colas Cristin, Richard Poingdestre, Jacques Dolbel, Jehan Hotton, Raulin Vaudin, Clement Hacquoil, Guilaume Chevalier, Francois Le Couteur, Pierre Le Brocq, and later two others, one of whom died soon after his election.

The procureur of the Queen, which was combined with the Procureur of the Seigneur, was Jean de Carteret. Edouard Gregory was Sergeant at Arms; Jean Vibert, Common Sergeant; Jean Hotton, Constable; Rollin Smith, Centenier; and Edouard Brayer and Thomas Paychin, Vingteniers.

The Island was divided into two districts, called Vingtaines. One was the north, the other the south.

La Seigneurie

Guernsey’s objection

The Guernsey authorities were not prepared to lose Sark without acting, and a Commission was set up to study the situation. Arising out of the deliberations of this Commission, a summons was served on Helier de Carteret, at the instance of the Guernsey Michaelmas Chief Pleas of 1581, to appear before the Royal Court of Guernsey and give an account of his actions. His Seigneurship of Sark was disregarded, and he was described as merely as “a farmer of Sark”.

Helier refused to obey the summons and as the Guernsey authorities could not compel him to do so, they turned their attention to Philippe, only to meet with a similar refusal. On 31 May 1582, Nic Carey, Andre Henry, Thomas Le Marchant and Jean Andros, four of the Jurats of the Royal Court of Guernsey, crossed to Sark accompanied by an appropriate guard, to make inquiries on the spot.

The outcome of this inquiry was that Edouard de Carteret, Bailiff, and two Jurats of Sark, were brought before the Royal Court of Guernsey to answer the charge of having set up a Court in Sark without due authority. Edouard was found guilty of being a usurper and sentenced to imprisonment in Castle Cornet, then the official prison. But as his offence was technical, he was freed on 21 July 1582, on his own petition, on condition that he would not return to Sark. He remained in St Peter Port, dying there and being buried in the Town Church on 10 February 1601.

Civil War

Jersey, was, as it still is, staunchly Royalist, and when the Prince of Wales was sent out of the country after Naseby in July 1645, he and his court spent some months there before going on to France. During his stay in Jersey, the Prince was entertained, at considerable expense, by Sir George de Carteret, the Lieut-Governor and Bailiff, who later won great fame for his valiant defence of the Island against the large fleet which the Republicans sent to subdue the Jerseymen.

A carriage leaves the harbour

Sir George, who was the grandson of Sir Philippe de Carteret of St Ouen and Sark, and Rachel Poulet, had married his first cousin, Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Philippe, of St Ouen, and Anne Dowse. Sir George’s eldest son, Sir Philippe, married Jemima, elder daughter of Edward Montague, first Earl of Sandwich. He was knighted in the ancient Castle of Mont Orgueil in Jersey, for his loyalty to the Crown during the Civil War, by King Charles II when that monarch visited the Island after the Restoration.

Sir Philippe was compelled to leave Sark, and retired to his Manor of St Ouen. Sir George agreed to organise an expedition to recover Sark. Between them they soon gathered together a small expeditionary force, which was divided into two parts, one under the leadership of an officer called Lane, and the other under Chamberlain. The expedition set out from Jersey with the intention of making a landing in Sark under cover of darkness, so that a surprise attack might be made on the superior forces in that Island.

The rendezvous was fixed for the night of the 26 May 1644, at L’Eperquerie des Congres, and the tiny force set out from Jersey to cross the always swelling Channel separating the Islands. The night was dark and stormy, and on the crossing the ships lost touch with one another and only Lane’s party reached the appointed place.

The Parliamentarians, possibly in anticipation of an attack, had posted sentries at L’Eperquerie, and when Lane and his men approached the shore and attempted to land, they challenged them, and receiving no satisfactory reply, fired a couple of shots at random at them. Lane’s men, who had had a very uncomfortable and rough crossing from Jersey, and were soaked to the skin as well as being seasick, and not knowing the strength of the forces opposing them, decided that discretion was the better part of valour. They made no attempt to land and, turning about, sailed back to Jersey.

Chamberlain, on the other hand, seems to have been made of sterner stuff. He sailed into Dixcart Bay, and after landing on the beach without opposition, advanced with his small force up the valley of Dixcart to the interior of the Island.

The men surprised the commander of Sark in bed, took him prisoner, and disarmed, without bloodshed, all those who opposed them. It was not until daylight that some of the inhabitants signalled for help to Bramsby, who happened to be cruising in the vicinity of the Island. Bramsby put a strong, armed party ashore, and it was then that the Jerseymen were overpowered.

New Seigneurs

The de Carterets are no longer the Seigneurs of Sark. In 1715 Sir Charles, who was also Seigneur of St Ouen and Bailiff of Jersey, found himself in financial difficulties and obtained permission from the Crown to dispose of his Seigneury of Sark. Before he could do so, however, he died, but his heir, Jean, who inherited the debts, continued with his predecessor’s plans.

Sir Charles de Carteret, who had been born in 1679, and baptized at St Margarets, Westminster, on 4 June of that year, with the Duke of Monmouth and King Charles II as his sponsors, had the strange experience of being knighted at the age of eight, by his Royal Godfather, on 25 October 1687.

Dixcart Bay

He was subsequently appointed a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, and at his death was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Between him and Helier, the first Seigneur, four illustrious de Carteret’s, all named Philippe, had been Lords of Sark. The descent had come from father to son, and covered a period of 133 years. Sir Charles had never married, and Jean, his kinsman, who was later to become Baron of Hawnes and 1st Earl Granville, while retaining the Seigneury of St Ouen, disposed of Sark to Colonel John Johnson, who died apparently without issue, for in 1721 the Seigneurial rights were again sold, this time to James Milner, who paid £5,000 for it.

De Carterets of Sark

So much of the history of Sark is bound up with the name of de Carteret that no record of the Island could be complete without mention of this noble and ancient Channel Islands family.

When Helier de Carteret, Seigneur of St Ouen, undertook the colonisation of Sark, he brought with him, as we have seen, several other de Carterets to help him in the difficult task which faced him. The most notable of these were Edouard, Hiou and Julian, all relatives of Helier, who all married and had children. These children remained in Sark and the de Carterets at present living in the Island are descendants of these three original colonists. Helier’s own descendants remained in the Island only as Seigneurs.

The genealogical information which follows, I have compiled from authentic records. It has been possible to trace the ancestry of Edouard and Hiou de Carteret, but I have unfortunately not yet been able to discover the parents of Julian.

The de Carteret family had had its roots in the Channel Islands for at least 1,000 years. As the majority of its members remained in the Islands, it is possible to give the pedigree with reasonable accuracy. The Armorial of Jersey provides much information.

The original de Carteret in Jersey was Guy, called l’Oiseleur, the Fowler. Lord of the Manor of Carteret and of Anneville in Normandy, he landed at St Ouen in Jersey about the year 950 AD. Jersey at that time was almost uninhabited, so Guy annexed that part of the Island with his French possessions. The present Manor of St Ouen has seen many changes during the course of the centuries, but it has been established that some parts of it existed in 1135.

Grand Greve Bay

Guy the Fowler may have been a Frank, but it is more probable that he was a Norman, for most of the French had been driven out of the Cotentin peninsular by the invader from the north, who made continual, savage raids on the coasts from 837 AD onwards. In 876 Rollo the Scandinavian, who, Snorro Sturleson tells us, was the son of Ragnar, Earl of More, was their leader.

Various accounts of the depredations of the Norsemen are given by historians. The following short description is probably as near the truth as any.

In early times Norway and Denmark are said to have been over-populated. They furnished what has been described as the Northern Hive, swarms from which came south and settled in Britain, Gaul and other parts of Europe.

Rollo was a Norwegian chieftain, who had had some difference of opinion with the King of Denmark. He sailed south with a large fleet and landing at the mouth of the River Seine, captured Rouen. Franco, Archbishop of Rouen, hearing of the carnage and destruction caused to the country by the invader, sent proposals of peace to Rollo.

He proposed that the Norsemen should be given most of the peninsular of Cotentin with about two hundred miles of coastline. Rollo and his heirs were to hold it forever as a Fief of the Crown of France.

If he promised to embrace Christianity, Rollo was to be granted the title of Duke, and to cement the bargain, Charles the Simple, King of France, promised him the hand of his daughter Gilla in marriage. Rollo accepted the terms and ordered all his followers to be baptised.

The arrangement turned out very well for France, for Rollo was a good and just man, as well as a fearless warrior. In a comparatively short time he had turned his Dukedom of Normandy into a prosperous province. It was he who originated the famous Clameur de Haro, about which we shall be hearing in greater detail shortly, so that any of his subjects who believed themselves to be wronged could apply directly to him for redress.

From Rollo to the Norman Conquest of England, there were seven Dukes of Normandy: Rollo, who took the name of Robert at his baptism, William Longsword, who succeeded in 926, Richard Sans Peur, who succeeded in 943, Richard the Good, who followed in 996, Richard who was unmarried and was succeeded by his brother Robert the Magnificent in 1028, who in turn was followed by William the Conqueror in 1035.

William the Conqueror, known also as William the Bastard, was Robert’s son by Darlet, the daughter of a tanner who lived in a cottage adjoining the Castle at Fallaise. The Castle was badly damaged by Allied bombardment in 1944, but the famous Round Tower, with its several stories and narrow staircases as protection against attack, and its central well, is intact; and another part of the Castle one may visit the living room overlooking Darlet’s cottage where William is said to have been born.

An aerial view of the island with the harbours in the foreground

In the chapel of the Castle there is a metal plaque bearing the names of all the knights who accompanied William to England in 1066. Among them are two de Carterets, Onfray and Maugier.

The Channel Islands formed part of the Duchy of Normandy in those days and came under the control of the Dukes. It was natural, therefore, that when William set out on his conquest of England two grandsons of Guy the Fowler should go with him. Both Onfray and Maugier took part in the Battle of Hastings. Maugier was knighted after the battle and according to the Domesday Book was granted estates in Somerset as a reward for his services.

Onfray returned to Jersey and succeeded his father as Seigneur of St Ouen. It is from him that our first Helier is descended. Onfray’s son, Renaud, who later followed his father as Seigneur of St Ouen, accompanied Geoffroi de Bouillon on the First Crusade and was present at the capture of Jerusalem in 1099.

When William became King of England he retained also his Dukedom of Normandy. On his death, however, while a younger son succeeded to the Crown of England as William II (William Rufus), his eldest son Robert succeeded to the Dukedom. But when William Rufus was succeeded by his brother Henry I, Henry quarrelled with Duke Robert, marched against him and defeated him, and once again the Duchy was united with the Crown of England.

When King John lost the Duchy in battle and Henry III formally surrendered it in 1259, the Dukedom was lost to the English Crown for ever.

The Channel Islands, however, seceded from the Duchy and remained under the English Crown. The Islands, therefore, were never conquered by the English Crown.

The pedigree of the Manorial Branch of the de Carterets up to Helier, is as follows:

  • 1 Guy de Carteret, L’Oiseleur (the Fowler) 950 AD
    • 2 William, Lord de Carteret, 1004
      • 3 Godfrey, Lord de Carteret
        • 4 Onfrey, Lord de Carteret (who fought at Hastings with his brother Maugier)
        • 5 Sir Reginald (Renaud) de Carteret (Seigneur of Carteret and St Ouen) 1125, married Lucia
            • 6 Sir Phillipe de Carteret, (Seigneur of Carteret and St Ouen) 1135 married Nicholaa
              • 7 Sir Reginald de Carteret, (Seigneur of Carteret and St Ouen) 1156
                • 8 Sir Reginald de Carteret, (Seigneur of Carteret and St Ouen) 1203
                  • 9 Sir Philippe de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) 1230
                    • 10 Sir Philippe de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) married Margaret, niece and heir of Philippe d’Aubigné
                      • 11 Sir Philippe de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen)
                        • 12 Sir Reginald de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) Married Genette de Gueripel Died 1349
                          • 13 Sir Philippe de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) Married Genette de Gueripel Died 1349
                            • 14 Sir Philippe de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) Died 1352 Succeeded by his brother
                              • 15 Sir Reginald de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) Died 1381
                                • 16 Sir Reginald de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen and Longueville) Bailiff of Jersey 1446
                                  • 17 Sir Philippe de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen 1460) Married the daughter and heir of Sir William Newton, of Gloucester
                                    • 18 Philippe de Carteret Married Penna, daughter of Perrine de Caux of Normandy
                                      • 19 Philippe de Carteret (Seigneur of St Ouen) heir to his grandfather; died August 1500; married Margaret, daughter and heir of Admiral Richard Harleston, Governor of Jersey
                                        • 20 Sir Edward de Carteret, (Seigneur of St Ouen) died September 1533, aged 50; married Mary, only daughter and heir of Simon Sarre
                                          • 21 Helier de Carteret (Seigneur of St Ouen and Sark) born 1532, died 1582; married, 1551, Margaret, widow of Clement Dumaresq Seigneur of Samares, and only daughter of Helier de Carteret, Bailiff of Jersey.

Other trees

The exact lineage of de Carterets in this era is hotly disputed. We believe that there are inaccuracies in this tree and refer readers to Descendants of Guillaume de Carteret, 960, the tree which has been in Jerripedia since 2010 and has been adjusted and corrected as further information has become available and Sark colonists.

There is a possibility of some confusion unless it is realised that there were two Heliers alive at the same time. One was the son of Sir Edward, and it was he who became Seigneur of St Ouen and first Seigneur of Sark. The other was this Helier’s father-in-law, a younger brother of his father. He became Bailiff of Jersey and died aged 81, while visiting London on business on 19 February 1561, and was buried at St John’s Church, Clerkenwell.

Bailiff Helier also had a son before marriage. This was Edward, whom his father adopted at birth, and who became first Bailiff of Sark. He had a varied career in Jersey. In 1549 he was elected constable of the Parish of St John and ten years later Procureur of the Tresor of the same parish. In 1551 he was appointed Solicitor-General and ten years later still, he attained the elevated position of Her Majesty’s Attorney-General in Jersey. He married his first cousin, Marguerite de Carteret, widow of Michel Sarre and daughter of the Bailiff’s brother, Edouard de Carteret, Seigneur of St Ouen. He left two sons, William, who became an Advocate of the Royal Court of Jersey; and Jean, who accompanied his father to Sark and settled there.

Edward’s father, Helier de Carteret, the Bailiff, was a great friend of the Duke of Norfolk and Sir William Compton. He must have been an outstanding marksman for we are told that he attracted the attention of King Henry VIII by his skill with the cross-bow and the arquebus, the weapons of the day. The King was so pleased with an arquebus invented by Helier that he appointed him Sewer of the Chamber in the Royal Household. (A Sewer arranged the seating of the guests.)

We cannot suppose that Helier realised what he was starting when he invented his weapon, which was a forerunner of the Sten, since it could fire five bullets without reloading.

Hiou de Carteret, one of the three de Carterets who accompanied our Helier to Sark, was the son of Jean de Carteret, Lieut-Bailiff of Jersey, and Catherine du Port, daughter of Nicholas. His grandfather, Jean, was a son of Sir Philippe de Carteret and Margaret Harliston, who had 20 children.

Hiou married Thomasse Gaignepain, who died a widow on 5 February 1638, after presenting her husband with three sons and three daughters; Rachel, born in 1588, Jean in 1590, Elizabeth in 1594, Marie in 1596, Elie in 1598 and Philippe, who married Marie Le Cerf on 28 September 1614.

Hiou bought the Tenancy of La Moignerie in 1585 from Philippe de Carteret, the Seingeur. The farm remained in the possession of the family for about 200 years. Philippe de Carteret, the Seneschal from 1707 to 1744, who married Sarah Slowley, and his son Philippe, who married Marie Careye, both lived there.

Hiou became one of the first Jurats of the Sark Royal Court. His son, Philippe, also attained that honour.

Jean de Carteret, the second de Carteret in whom we are interested, was the son of Edward, the Bailiff of Sark. Jean, who I believe lived at La Valette, married Judith Quesle, the daughter of Jean Quesle, on 20 August 1575. They had six sons: Jean, born 25 April 1576, and died 30 October 1654; Josue, born 29 December 1588, married Susanne Vibert on 12 January 1610, and was drowned on 25 September 1631; Lucas, who was born on 4 June 1590, fell down the cliffs and was killed on 18 June 1612; Samuel, who was born on 30 January 1593, married Janne Perrier of St Ouen, daughter of Pierre; Thomas, who married Sara Le Couteur on 15 December 1608, died on 4 November 1647; and Philippe, for whom no dates are recorded.

Thomas was a man of property. He bought the Tenancy of Le Veau Rocque in 1617, and inherited La Tour from Pierre Le Couteur, who had bought it from Seigneur Philippe de Carteret on 26 December 1612.

The third de Carteret was Julian, who bought the tenancy of La Forge. He became the Senior Jurat of the first Sark Court. On 29 October 1570 he married Marie, the widow of Jean Guille, by whom he had three children, Sara, born on 24 November 1571, married Elie Dumaresq on 26 October 1608; Marie, born on 16 January 1575; and Philippe, whose wife’s name was Elizabeth, and who died on 24 October 1642.

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